The financial troubles of Ottoman Empire which started in 16th century reached its ultimate point in 19th century. The Ottoman Empire searching to get rid of these troubles directed towards making some reform activities during the Tanzimat Era. Some of the money needed for these reform activities was met via the external borrowings which the Ottoman Empire had applied reluctantly and then could not preclude. During the period of 1854-1876 which was included in the Tanzimat Era and called as the first borrowing period, the Ottoman Empire signed 15 external borrowing agreements totally. However, the loans received as a result of these agreements were not used properly and then the budget deficit could not be settled. At the end of these developments, a financial bankruptcy was experienced in the Ottoman Empire in 1876.

Martin Svoboda